[210], The Smithwick Tribunal concluded that a member of the Garda Síochána (the Republic of Ireland's police force) colluded with the IRA in the killing of two senior RUC officers in 1989. Search for more papers by this author. In response to the Union, the Catholic Association was formed by Daniel O’Connell, who turned it into a national movement campaigning for Catholic emancipation. Nationalists initially welcomed the British Army, as they did not trust the RUC. The UK government in London, believing the Northern Ireland administration incapable of containing the security situation, sought to take over the control of law and order there. [148], Successive British Governments, having failed to achieve a political settlement, tried to "normalise" Northern Ireland. [251] At least one civilian victim was an off-duty member of the Territorial Army. These differences became more marked during the reign of Henry VIII. But they had not won the war – the subsequent brutal execution of the key figures turned these men into martyrs and the cause gained further momentum. [94] The continuous fighting, which became known as the Battle of the Bogside, lasted for three days. So when Henry II gained control of the throne, there was much interest in expanding into their neighbor, Ireland. Some 3,500 relatives of people killed during the Northern Ireland conflict have urged the British and Irish governments to fully investigate the decades of violence. A British soldier lets a young boy look … The new regulations required an officer to visit the complainants house to inform them of the outcome of their complaint. [163] They usually fired from an improvised armoured car using a .50 BMG calibre M82 sniper rifle. Northern Ireland is historically a territory that suffered enormously from the Anglo-Irish conflict. [184] A 1973 British Government document (uncovered in 2004), Subversion in the UDR, suggested that 5–15% of UDR soldiers then were members of loyalist paramilitaries. In 1963, the prime minister of Northern Ireland, Viscount Brookeborough, stepped down after 20 years in office. In … [57][128], Ultimately, however, the Sunningdale Agreement was brought down by mass action on the part of loyalist paramilitaries (primarily the Ulster Defence Association, at that time over 20,000 strong[citation needed]) and workers, who formed the Ulster Workers' Council. From 1972 onward, paramilitaries were tried in juryless Diplock courts to avoid intimidation of jurors. [106], After the riots, the 'Hunt Committee' was set up to examine the RUC. What caused it? Had the withdrawal occurred – which Wilson supported but others, including James Callaghan, opposed – the region would have become a separate dominion of the British Commonwealth. Although O'Neill was a unionist, they viewed him as being too 'soft' on the civil rights movement and opposed his policies. And a distracted Britain offered the perfect setting for the Military Council of the IRB to plan an uprising. One sign of this was the formation of the Peace People, which won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1976. [155][156] It was planned by the IRA's South Armagh Brigade and an IRA unit in Newry. Then on the 50th anniversary of the Battle of the Somme and the Easter Rising, in 1966, violence erupted. Signs were put up around South Armagh reading "Sniper at Work". Its members and barracks (especially the more isolated ones) were vulnerable, and they were a source of much-needed arms. Geraghty, a British subject, an Irish citizen, a writer and a military advisor, explores the roots of the civil war in Northern Ireland since the Battle of the Boyne (1690), paying particular attention to the last 30 years of violence. British-Irish Relations and Northern Ireland: From Violent Politics to Conflict Regulation: Amazon.de: O'Duffy, Brendan: Fremdsprachige Bücher Simon Cunningham. Like the IRA itself, the PIRA demanded the unification of Ireland, advocated civil rights and represented Catholic interests. As counties Fermanagh and Tyrone and border areas of Londonderry, Armagh, and Down were mainly nationalist, the Irish Boundary Commission could reduce Northern Ireland to four counties or less. This threat was seen as justifying preferential treatment of unionists in housing, employment and other fields. [161], In the 1980s, loyalist paramilitary groups, including the Ulster Volunteer Force, the Ulster Defence Association and Ulster Resistance, imported arms and explosives from South Africa. Reaction to this agreement was diverse; it was greeted by huge demonstrations and the likes that aimed to derail the agreement. SOME 3,500 relatives of people killed during the Northern ­Ireland conflict have urged the Irish and British governments to fully investigate the Troubles. After the IRA called off its campaign in 1962, Northern Ireland became relatively stable for a brief period. Enlarge. Agreement proved elusive, however, and the Troubles continued throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and the 1990s within a context of political deadlock. How to create a webinar that resonates with remote audiences; Dec. 30, 2020. Ireland in the 1800s is often remembered for two things, famine and rebellion.. SOME 3,500 relatives of people killed during the Northern ­Ireland conflict have urged the Irish and British governments to fully investigate the … They are referred to informally as "The Disappeared". That night, loyalists took to the streets of Belfast in protest at the report. ©2021 AETN UK. The local council had allocated the house to an unmarried 19-year-old Protestant (Emily Beattie, the secretary of a local UUP politician) instead of either of two large Catholic families with children. The 1801 Act of Union abolished the Irish Parliament and brought Ireland and Great Britain together, seeing the United Kingdom spread across the British Isles for the first time. Nevertheless, Margaret Thatcher refused to make any concessions. Anglo-Irish Wars. Lands occupied by Irish landowners were confiscated, especially in Munster and Ulster. Northern Ireland. The History of the Struggle for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland 1968–1978", Northern Ireland: The Plain Truth (second edition), "Submission to the Independent Commission into Policing", "The Derry March: Main events of the day", Police Ombudsman statement on Devenny investigation, Extract from The Battle of Bogside (1970), "Conclusions of a meeting of the Joint Security Committee held on Tuesday, 9th September, 1969, at Stormont Castle [PRONI Public Records HA/32/3/2]", "McGurk's bar bombing – A dark night in the darkest times", "CAIN: Events: 'Bloody Sunday' – Names of Dead and Injured", "CAIN: [Widgery Report] Report of the Tribunal appointed to inquire into events on Sunday 30 January 1972", "CAIN: Violence: List of Significant Violent Incidents", "CAIN: Victims: Memorials: Claudy Bomb Memorial", "IRA bomb in Claudy was indefensible, says Martin McGuinness", "UK urged to Release Dublin and Monaghan Bombing Files", "The 1974–5 Threat of a British Withdrawal from Northern Ireland", "CAIN: Events: IRA Truce – 9 Feb 1975 to 23 Jan 1976 – A Chronology of Main Events", "1979: Soldiers die in Warrenpoint massacre", "The Hunger Strike of 1981 – A Chronology of Main Events", "1982: IRA bombs cause carnage in London", "RUC and IRA chiefs' lives feature in national biography", "CAIN: Victims: Memorials: Search Results Page", "IRA men shot dead at Loughgall had been under surveillance for weeks, court told", "NORTHERN IRELAND | IRA bomb victim buried", On this day: Loyalist killer Michael Stone freed from Maze, Operation Banner: An Analysis of Military Operations in Northern Ireland (2006), "Soldiers hurt in IRA attack on helicopter", "House of Commons Hansard Debates for 8 Jun 1993", "BBC ON THIS DAY 1996: Docklands bomb ends IRA ceasefire", "IRA claims responsibility for London bombing", "Northern Ireland shootings: The last soldier murdered", Northern Ireland becoming a more normalised society, "Pat Finucane murder: 'Shocking state collusion', says PM", "UK agents 'worked with NI paramilitary killers'", "CAIN: Public Records: Subversion in the UDR", "British army 'covered up' UDR units links to UVF", Collusion in the South Armagh/Mid Ulster Area in the mid-1970s, "Deadly Intelligence: State Involvement in Loyalist Murder in Northern Ireland – Summary", Stevens Enquiry 3: Overview & Recommendations, "Bombshell documentary uncovers Government collusion with loyalist paramilitaries", Houses of the Oireachtas, Joint Committee on Justice, Equality, Defence and Women's Rights, "Loughinisland: Ombudsman confirms collusion between police and loyalist killers", "Irish police colluded in murders of RUC officers Harry Breen and Bob Buchanan, report finds", "Disappeared issue 'a festering wound' says McGuinness", "Undercover soldiers 'killed unarmed civilians in Belfast, "Amnesty wants probe into British army 'death squad, "Book reveals Adams, McGuinness were on British Army death squad hit list", "Undercover Northern Ireland soldiers accused of killing unarmed civilians", "Michael McGoldrick, 64, Activist in Ulster, Dies", "Police hold six over loyalist turf war deaths", "1998: Children die in Drumcree protests", "Sutton Index of Deaths: Year of the death", "Navigating Risk: Understanding the Impact of the Conflict on Children and Young People in Northern Ireland", "John M. Gates, Ch. The origins of problems in the region stretch centuries back to the Anglo-Norman intervention of Ireland in 1167, when England first laid roots in the area. The Irish staged several revolts and fought for their independence over the course of many centuries. [223] A former member stated: "[W]e were not there to act like an army unit, we were there to act like a terror group. The plantations altered the demography of Ireland. Nationalists point to a number of events in these years to explain the upsurge in violence. According to Malcolm Sutton's Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland:[246]. [57], During the riots, on 13 August, Taoiseach Jack Lynch made a television address. The year leading up to the ceasefires included a mass shooting in Castlerock, in which four people were killed. [86] It caused outrage among Catholics and nationalists, sparking two days of rioting in Derry between nationalists and the RUC. Then, in 2001, it was enlarged to include five members from the Scottish Parliament, five members from the National Assembly for Wales, five members from the Northern Ireland … On 12 August, the loyalist Apprentice Boys of Derry were allowed to march along the edge of the Bogside. [199] Through Nelson, FRU helped loyalists target people for assassination. A month later it shot three Catholic civilians as they left a pub, killing Peter Ward, a Catholic from the Falls Road. After the early 1920s, there were occasional incidents of sectarian unrest in Northern Ireland. And in June 1983, Gerry Adams, the leader of Sinn Fein, went on to win the Westminster seat for West Belfast. [179], There were many incidents of collusion between the British state security forces (the British Army and RUC) and loyalist paramilitaries. These two groups were formed when the IRA split into the 'Provisional' and 'Official' factions. There was some collusion between British security forces and loyalist paramilitaries. Since then, most paramilitary violence has been directed at their "own" communities and at other factions within their organisations. This resulted in unionist control of areas such as Derry City, Fermanagh, and Tyrone where they were actually a minority of voters. The RUC deployed Shorland armoured cars mounted with heavy Browning machine guns. The conflict began during a campaign by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association to end discrimination against the Catholic/nationalist minority by the Protestant/unionist government of Northern Ireland and Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC). Taunts and missiles were exchanged between the loyalists and nationalist residents. Loyalist paramilitaries responded to the bombing with revenge attacks on Catholics, mostly civilians. He died of his injuries the next day.[90]. Irish people will usually support "anyone but England" in a soccer or rugby match. His extraordinarily long tenure was … [192] The Cassel Report investigated 76 murders attributed to the group and found evidence that soldiers and policemen were involved in 74 of those. Protestants formed the Ulster Volunteer Force, while nationalists formed the Irish Volunteers. Between war of territory, war of ideology and war of religion, the British province has unfortunately suffered painful historical episodes, which have often outraged the international press. [135] The Official IRA called off its campaign in May 1972. In turn, more British troops were deployed to the area. On 13 July, RUC officers beat a Catholic civilian, Francis McCloskey (67), during clashes in Dungiven. [137], British troop concentrations peaked at 20:1000 of the civilian population, the highest ratio found in the history of counterinsurgency warfare, higher than that achieved during the "Malayan Emergency"/"Anti-British National Liberation War", to which the conflict is frequently compared. These included severe rioting in Belfast in the 1930s and 1950s, and the IRA's brief Northern Campaign in the 1940s and Border Campaign between 1956 and 1962, which did not enjoy broad popular support among nationalists. The escalation of violence made an Irish solution urgent. A small force of British troops was also deployed to Northern Ireland. After a prolonged period of background political manoeuvring, during which the Baltic Exchange and Bishopsgate bombings occurred in London, both loyalist and republican paramilitary groups declared ceasefires in 1994. Other important changes included the reform of the RUC, renamed as the Police Service of Northern Ireland, which was required to recruit at least a 50% quota of Catholics for ten years, and the removal of Diplock courts under the Justice and Security (Northern Ireland) Act 2007. Three other people were also killed: Lady Brabourne, the elderly mother of Mountbatten's son-in-law; and two teenagers, a grandson of Mountbatten and a local boatman. To this end, they formed the paramilitary Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF).[57]. Occasionally, the IRA attempted or carried out attacks on British targets in Gibraltar, Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. [81] Because of the lack of police reaction to the attacks, nationalists saw the RUC, almost wholly Protestant, as backing the loyalists and allowing the attacks to occur. [110] That same day, eighteen British soldiers, mostly members of the Parachute Regiment, were killed by two remote-controlled bombs in the Warrenpoint ambush at Narrow Water Castle, near Warrenpoint, County Down. 122", "Facts and Figures of the Belfast Pogroms G.B. The first hunger striker to die, Bobby Sands, was elected to Parliament on an Anti-H-Block ticket, as was his election agent Owen Carron following Sands' death. There were gun battles between nationalists and the RUC, and between nationalists and loyalists. [58] A total of 557 people, mostly Catholics, were killed in political or sectarian violence from 1920 to 1922 in the six counties that would become Northern Ireland, both during and after the Irish War of Independence. Today, the larger religious conflict lies not between England and Ireland, but rather the two factions living together in Northern Ireland. The conflict in Northern Ireland was generally referred to in Ireland during its course as ‘The Troubles’ – a euphemistic folk name that had also been applied to earlier bouts of political violence. IRISH WAR HIDDEN CONFLICT BETWEEN IRA AND BRITISH By Tony Geraghty NEW : Perhaps you have felt which you have been cheated whenever a recently launched product is not going to offer the quality you were promised.In case your do this IRISH WAR HIDDEN CONFLICT BETWEEN IRA AND BRITISH By Tony Geraghty NEW , we guarantee you that you will never feel cheated. Life and change in Northern Ireland. According to one historian, children raised during the Troubles were found to develop similar antisocial external behaviors as children similarly born in regions of conflict, notably those born and raised during World War II. [70] In April and May 1966 it petrol bombed a number of Catholic homes, schools and businesses. [201][202] Members of the security forces tried to obstruct the Stevens investigation. Three of the bandmembers, two Catholics and a Protestant, were shot dead, while two of the UVF men were killed when the bomb they had loaded onto the band's minibus detonated prematurely. The parades are held to commemorate William of Orange's victory in the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, which secured the Protestant Ascendancy and British rule in Ireland. to. The first sounds of Irish nationalism were being made. The Irish Volunteers split, with a majority, known as the National Volunteers, supporting the war effort, and some of them joining Irish regiments of the New British Army. Direct rule was initially intended as a short-term measure; the medium-term strategy was to restore self-government to Northern Ireland on a basis that was acceptable to both unionists and nationalists. In response, nationalists led by Eoin MacNeill formed the Irish Volunteers in 1913, whose goal was to oppose the UVF and ensure enactment of the Third Home Rule Bill in the event of British or unionist recalcitrance. Approximately 60% of the dead were killed by republicans, 30% by loyalists and 10% by British security forces. However, Northern Ireland is also home to many Catholics. [234] Teenage alcoholism was also a problem, partly as a result of the drinking clubs established in both loyalist and republican areas. "The Interplay of Non-violent and Violent Action in Northern Ireland, 1967–72", in. By 1969, the Provisional IRA (PIRA) was formed, a breakaway from the main part of the IRA. After the ceasefires, talks began between the main political parties in Northern Ireland to establish political agreement. Britain had won the battle. In Ulster, particularly in the six counties which became Northern Ireland, Sinn Féin fared relatively poorly in the 1918 election, and unionists won a majority. The bomb, which exploded in the early hours of the morning, killed five people, including Conservative MP Sir Anthony Berry, and injured thirty-four others. [196] Brian Nelson, the UDA's chief 'intelligence officer', was a FRU agent. Chronicle / Alamy Stock Photo . [209] In 2016, a new Ombudsman report concluded that there had been collusion between the police and the UVF in relation to the deaths of six Catholic men in the 1994 Loughinisland massacre, and that the investigation was undermined by the wish to protect informers, but found no evidence police had foreknowledge of the attack. irish british conflict. [150], In the wake of the hunger strikes, Sinn Féin, which had become the Provisional IRA's political wing,[149][151][152] began to contest elections for the first time in both Northern Ireland (as abstentionists) and in the Republic. It thus became the focus for the longest major campaign in the history of the British Army. They became small groups with little influence, but still capable of violence. The final official plantations sprung up under Oliver Cromwell’s English Commonwealth during the 1650s, when thousands of Parliamentarian soldiers were settled in Ireland. [113] Moreover, due to poor intelligence,[114] very few of those interned were actually republican activists at the time, but some internees became increasingly radicalised as a result of their experiences. By the end of 1971, 29 barricades were in place in Derry, blocking access to what was known as Free Derry; 16 of these were impassable even to the British Army's one-ton armoured vehicles. The word "troubles" has been used as a synonym for violent conflict for centuries. [129][130][131] Ten days later, nine civilians were killed in a triple car bombing in Claudy. [231], In addition to the violence and intimidation, there was chronic unemployment and a severe housing shortage. Gladstone never got to see his wish for Home Rule come to light – both his 1886 and 1893 bills were never passed. Some 3,500 relatives of people killed during the Northern Ireland conflict have urged the Irish and British governments to fully investigate the decades of violence. It was swiftly put down and those involved were executed. [235] The Department of Health has looked at a report written in 2007 by Mike Tomlinson of Queen's University, which asserted that the legacy of the Troubles has played a substantial role in the current rate of suicide in Northern Ireland. The IRA's "Long War" was boosted by large donations of arms from Libya in the 1980s (see Provisional IRA arms importation) due to Muammar Gaddafi's anger at British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher's government for assisting the Reagan government's bombing of Tripoli, which had allegedly killed one of Gaddafi's children. Unionists, who were mostly Ulster Protestants, wanted Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom. The Troubles (Irish: Na Trioblóidí) were an ethno-nationalist[14][15][16][17] period of conflict in Northern Ireland that lasted about 30 years from the late 1960s to the late 1990s. On 8 May 2007, devolved government returned to Northern Ireland. This was evident on 30 January 1972, when the army controversially suppressed rioting at a civil rights march in Derry in a day that became known as ‘Bloody Sunday.’ The resulting death toll of 14 civil rights protestors fed into the hands of the IRA; more recruits flooded into their ranks. Warrington bomb kills two young boys, August 1994: Peace process receives a big boost when the pro-Catholic 1994 IRA ceasefire declared with Sinn Fein entering peace process, 1996: Peace Talks stall and violence resumes with Canary Wharf bombing, February 1997: Stephen Restorick last soldier to be killed until 7 March 2009, 10 April 1998: Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement. [146] The Official IRA ceasefire of 1972, however, became permanent, and the "Official" movement eventually evolved into the Workers' Party, which rejected violence completely. Violent confrontations quickly broke out, with atrocities committed on both sides. [85], A few days later, a student civil rights group, People's Democracy, was formed in Belfast. In December, one month after the Birmingham pub bombings which killed 21 people, the IRA declared a ceasefire; this would theoretically last throughout most of the following year. Religious leaders unfortunately seem to do all in their … [87] Residents then sealed off the Bogside with barricades to keep the police out, creating "Free Derry", which was briefly a no-go area for the security forces. The Irish Republican Army Border Campaign (1956-1962)--IRA border raids against the British forces in Northern Ireland. Others argue that incidents such as the shooting of three unarmed IRA members in Gibraltar by the Special Air Service ten months later confirmed suspicions among republicans, and in the British and Irish media, of a tacit British shoot-to-kill policy of suspected IRA members.[225]. Some interpreted the speech as a threat of military intervention. Increasing tensions led to severe violence in August 1969 and the deployment of British troops, in what became the British Army's longest ever operation. [236], Further social issues arising from the Troubles include antisocial behavior and an aversion towards political participation. [50] A part of the treaty signed in 1922 mandated that a boundary commission would sit to decide where the frontier of the northern state would be in relation to its southern neighbour. Remarks by a young Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) councillor, Hugh Logue, to an audience at Trinity College Dublin that Sunningdale was the tool "by which the Unionists will be trundled off to a united Ireland" also damaged chances of significant unionist support for the agreement. Despite some intermingling of the English and Irish population, the two were never completely united. [159] Another bomb had been planted at nearby Tullyhommon at a parallel Remembrance Day commemoration but failed to detonate. He was the first RUC officer to be killed during the Troubles. The incident invigorated the civil rights movement. On 21 January 1919, the IRA shot dead 2 Irish policemen in county Tipperary, and this marked the beginning of what is now known as the War of Independence. All the while, plantations were being established throughout the country. Revisiting NI on 20th anniversary of ceasefires", "The Troubles: How 1969 violence led to Army's longest campaign", "Sutton Index of Deaths: Summary of Organisation responsible", "Northern Ireland: Eighty-one 'punishment attacks' in past year", "Draft List of Deaths Related to the Conflict (2003–present)", "Operation Banner: An analysis of military operations in Northern Ireland", "UK military operations in Northern Ireland 1969–2006 aka Operation Banner", "Northern Ireland still divided by peace walls 20 years after conflict", "Out of trouble: How diplomacy brought peace to Northern Ireland", "CRESC Working Paper Series : Working Paper No. The other regional language is Ulster Scots, a variation of English which is spoken in Northern Ireland and is similar to Scots spoken in Scotland. The Irish / British Conflicts. Penguin UK, 2007. The system of complaints was overhauled – if civilians believed they were being harassed or abused by soldiers in the streets or during searches and made a complaint, they would never find out what action (if any) was taken. After all, the mood was ripe for unrest, with both America and France already experiencing revolution in the latter half of the eighteenth century. The formation of the Home Rule League in 1870 acted as a further catalyst for Prime Minister William Gladstone to put forward bills for Irish self-government. Irish British Conflict. Six counties (Londonderry, Tyrone, … McKittrick, David; Kelters, Seamus; Feeney, Brian and Thornton, Chris (1999). At the time, the IRA was weak and not engaged in armed action, but some unionists warned it was about to be revived to launch another campaign against Northern Ireland. [169], On 9 February 1996, less than two years after the declaration of the ceasefire, the IRA revoked it with the Docklands bombing in the Canary Wharf area of London, killing two people, injuring 39 others,[170] and causing £85 million in damage to the city's financial centre. With the advent of better education as a result of the introduction of the Welfare State and the equal opportunities it entailed, the disparities within the Northern Ireland community were highlighted. Dublin, London and Birmingham were also affected, albeit to a lesser degree than Northern Ireland itself. By May of the same year, turmoil had reached a head: The Ulster Workers’ Council, a coalition of Protestant trade unionists, called for a general strike in the province and loyalist bombs exploded throughout Dublin and Monaghan, killing 32 people in the worst day of the Troubles. They want an independent Irish republic. His extraordinarily long tenure was a … [132] The IRA is accused of committing this bombing but no proof for that accusation is published yet. There were ongoing tensions about the Provisional IRA's failure to disarm fully and sufficiently quickly. This parade has now been banned indefinitely, following nationalist riots against the parade, and also loyalist counter-riots against its banning. [57], Since the late 1980s, while the IRA continued its armed campaign, its political wing Sinn Féin, led since 1983 by Gerry Adams, sought a negotiated end to the conflict, although Adams accurately predicted that this would be a very long process. Aspects included the removal of internment without trial and the removal of political status for paramilitary prisoners. Image ID: D89ERY irish fanatics shoot kill sir henry hughes wilson ulster unionist mp for north down in the street 22nd june 1922. the murderers were caught hanged. [216][217][218], British government security forces, including the Military Reaction Force (MRF), carried out what have been described as "extrajudicial killings" of unarmed civilians. [188] This was only a small fraction of those who served in it, but the proportion was higher than the regular British Army, the RUC and the civilian population. [230] There was also the fear that local paramilitaries instilled in their respective communities with the punishment beatings, "romperings", and the occasional tarring and feathering meted out to individuals for various purported infractions. What is the IRA and the Sinn Féin? This descent into violence precipitated the need for armed forces on both sides. [51], Peace lines, which were built in Northern Ireland during the early years of the Troubles, remain in place.[52]. [211][212][213][214] The two officers were ambushed by the IRA near Jonesborough, County Armagh when returning from a cross-border security conference in Dundalk in the Republic of Ireland. On conviction, they were to be treated as ordinary criminals. The anti-British sentiment in Ireland is mainly only seen in sport, e.g. Although Catholic emancipation was achieved in 1829, largely eliminating official discrimination against Roman Catholics (then around 75% of Ireland's population), Dissenters, and Jews, the Repeal Association's campaign to repeal the 1801 Union failed. It all started in the 16th and 17th Centuries. These talks led to the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. Indeed, the Battle of the Boyne(1690), in which the previously desposed Catholic King James II was defeated by the Protestant King William III, ensured Protestant supremacy. 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